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Antidiabetic drugs are medications used to treat diabetes mellitus by lowering blood glucose levels. With the exception of insulin, exenatide, liraglutide and pramlintide, all are administered orally and are thus also called oral hypoglycemic agents. This pharmacology lecture covers topics such as pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus type 1 & type 2, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, insulin production, pancreatic beta & alpha cells, glycogen, glucagon, glucose function; mechanism of action of glucose-lowering drugs; rapid, short, intermediate, long -acting insulin analogs, synthetic amylin, incretin mimetics, DPP-4 inhibitors, sulfonylureas, glinides, biguanides, thiazolidinediones, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. Drugs mentioned include insulins Lispro, Aspart, Glulisine, Regular, NPH (isophane), Detemir, Glargine, Degludec; Pramlintide; Exenatide, Liraglutide; Alogliptin, Linagliptin, Saxagliptin, Sitagliptin; Glimepiride, Glyburide, Glipizide; Nateglinide, Repaglinide; Metformin; Pioglitazone, Rosiglitazone; Canagliflozin, Dapagliflozin; Acarbose, and Miglitol.
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